Notes

  • Progressive Mastery (6/16/2018) - This list is taken from Brendon Burchard’s High Performance Habits. This is basically the formula to fully master any skills. Determine a skill that you want to master Set specific stretch goals on your path to developing that skill Attach high levels of emotion and meaning to your journey and your results Identify the factors … Continue reading
  • Protractor Notes (6/8/2018) - Protractor Locators (= Angular locators + selenium locators): binding model css buttonText repeater options id linkText name tagName xPath addLocator   Create Test Suites   Other Notes Reference This note is taken from Introduction to Protractor by Nate Taylor and AngularJS Fundamentals by Joe Eames and Jim Cooper from Pluralsight.
  • Sapperton – Data-Driven Decision by Translink/Government (2/27/2018) - The talk was more so centering the questions on how government collect our transportation data and what actions they took upon doing the data analysis. It wasn’t nothing data-driven, but I still learned some interesting thing from that event. Goals for the Translink/Government mobility: seamless integration safety: compact road affordability and fair price
  • Bitcoin Notes (1/5/2018) - I went to a super awesome bitcoin meetup event today. It was an introductory presentation which was perfect for a noobie like me. Anyways, here’s a short note: Bitcoin was introduced by Satoshi in 2008 when market crashed The purpose is to create a cash flow system that cannot be controlled by banks, government, or … Continue reading
  • Toy R Us files for Bankruptcy (11/25/2017) - This is actually an old news back from September. It was sad to hear that such big toy company is leaving. Here are some quick highlights from an article in the Economist magazine: Toy R Us was 5 billions of debts! 3 private-equity firms bought the company in 2005 in a leveraged buyout causing around … Continue reading
  • Strategy Pattern Exercise – Action Adventure Game (5/21/2017) - Strategy Pattern (image source from Wikipedia):    Exercise Description:     Solution
  • 10/07: Basic Paxos (10/7/2014) -
  • 09/23: Test-and-set and performance (9/23/2014) - Caching Locks Spin lock: to acquire a lock, a process may enter an infinite loop that keeps attempting a read-modify till it succeeds If the lock is in memory, there is heavy bus traffic -> other processes make little forward progress Locks can be cached (Still quite expensive): •    Cache coherence ensures that a lock … Continue reading
  • 09/18 – Producer and Cosumer (9/19/2014) -  
  • 09/09: Lab – Java threading exercise (9/9/2014) - Inspiration from Jamie King’s Youtube tutorials on Threading – Divide and Conqueror Example. Instead of using C#, the below code is in Java (yay!). Output: My system has 4 cores and here’s the result: Summing with one thread Total value is: 990026095 Time to sum: 101 ms Summing with multiple threads Total value is: 990026095 … Continue reading
  • 09/04: Two Professor’s Problem (9/4/2014) - The two professor’s problem is basically a two general’s problem except that the generals are replaced with professors and the soldiers are now birds. Proposed algorithm (in sudo code): Professor: chosse dates order list in ascending order send list to the other professor wait: receive list wait until timeout if (rcv) choose the earliest acceptable … Continue reading
  • 09/02: What’s a distributed system (9/2/2014) - What’s a distributed system? Multiple computers work together to solve a problem that’s too large for a single computer. Can complete tasks despite failures look like a non-distributed system from a user’s perspective may result programmers working in conflict speed reliability: if one system make mistake, the others could catch it availability (fault tolerance): if … Continue reading
  • Parity Block (1/27/2014) - Part 1: Suppose we are given 3 data disks: disk 1: 1111 0000 disk 2: 1010 1010 disk 3: 0011 1000 ————————————————————– To find compute the redundant disk, we perform mod-2 sum: disk 4: 0110 0010   Part 2: Suppose we updated the value for disk 2: disk 2 old value: 1010 1010 disk 2 … Continue reading
  • Transaction Management Overview (12/17/2013) - ACID properties: Atomicity: no partial transaction. It’s either all or none. Consistency: for example, when user transfers fund from one account to another, no penny should be loss during the transfer. The ending states should be consistent Isolation: many of the transactions are execute in parallel. This property ensure that the result of T1->T2 is … Continue reading
  • Hate Speech (4/19/2013) -   Hate Speech over the Internet Introduction: Rights come with responsibility. While given the freedom of speech, people should still be responsible for what they have said. The internet has provided us a free-writing space to release our feelings and emotions conveniently. Most of the chatting and blogging sites (such as facebook and wordpress) nowadays … Continue reading
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  • How technology benefits our social skills (4/19/2013) - Introduction: What are friends? Friends, along with family, are the people that we interact with everyday. While we cannot choose what family we wish to born in or who these members are, we have a choice for making friends. Friends are usually those people who share common interest and develop interesting conversation. We all have … Continue reading
  • Compiler Notes (4/15/2013) - Notes that I should study/review… 2013-01-10-Note-18-55 2013-01-15-Note-19-45 2013-01-17-Note-19-51 2013-01-21-Note-20-28 2013-01-29-Note-18-36 2013-01-31-Note-19-06 2013-02-05-Note-14-31 2013-02-26-Note-15-14 2013-02-28-Note-18-36 2013-03-05-Note-21-41 Midterm.. 2013-03-12-Note-21-34 2013-03-26-Note-21-51 2013-03-28-Note-08-52 2013-04-02-Note-09-49 2013-04-04-Note-10-22 Chapter Summaries: Area 1: Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Area 2: Chapter 3: no 3.5 & 3.9 Area 3: Chapter 4: 4.1 – 4.6 Area 4: Chapter 5: all Area 5: Chapter 6: **6.4**, no … Continue reading
  • Summary of Chapter 9 (4/14/2013) - MACHINE-INDEPENDENT OPTIMIZATION Global Common Subexpressions: An important optimization is finding computations of the same expression in two different basic blocks. If one precedes the other, we can store the result the first time it is computed and use the stored result on subsequent occurrences. Copy Propagation: A copy statement, u = v, assigns on variable v to another, u. In some circumstances, we … Continue reading
  • Summary of Chapter 8 (4/14/2013) - CODE GENERATION Code generation is the final phase of a compiler. The code generator maps the intermediate representation produced by the front end, or if there is a code optimization phase by the code  optimizer, into the target program. Instruction selection is the process of choosing target-language instructions for each IR statement. Register allocation is the process of deciding which … Continue reading
  • Summary of Chapter 7 (4/13/2013) - RUN-TIME ENVIRONMENTS Run-time Organization. To implement the abstractions embodied in the source language, a compiler creates and manages a run-time environment in concert with the operating system and the target machine. The run-time environment has static data areas for the object code and the static data objects created at compile time. It also has dynamic stack and heap areas … Continue reading
  • Summary of Chapter 6 (4/12/2013) - INTERMEDIATE-CODE GENERATION Pick an intermediate representation: An intermediate representation is typically some combination of a graphical notation and three-address code. As in syntax trees, a node in a graphical notation represnets a construct; the children of a node represent its subconstructs. Three address code takes its name from instructions of the form x = y op z, with at most … Continue reading
  • Summary of Chapter 5 (4/12/2013) - SYNTAX-DIRECTED TRANSLATION Inherited and Synthesized Attributes: Syntax-directed definitions may use two kinds of attributes. A synthesized attribute at a parse-tree node is computed from attributes at its children. An inherited attribute at a node is computed from attributes at its parent and/or siblings.  Dependency Graph: Given a parse tree and an SDD, we draw edges among … Continue reading
  • M2Q8: Ecosystems (4/12/2013) - “Ecosystems are the planets life support system – for the human species and all other forms of life” (MEA, 2005). In the light of this statement answer the questions that follow: What are ecosystem services? Ecosystem services are the goods and services that nature provides to better human living. List the ecosystem services categories and … Continue reading
  • M2Q6: Silviculture (4/12/2013) - What is Silviculture? List the major silviculture practices in BC and describe them. Why is the development of novel silviculture practices useful in the context of a changing climate? use the pine beetle epidemic example as part of your answer. Silviculture is the growing and cultivation of the trees. Practices in BC are:  clearcutting: all … Continue reading
  • M2Q5: EROEI (4/12/2013) - Refer to the figure below and answer the following questions: The figure shows that Canada has the third largest oil reserves in the world. Where are these reserves located and in what form? The oil reserves in Canada lies mainly in Alberta and are found in oil sands in the form of bitumen, which is … Continue reading
  • M2Q4: Carbon Cycle (4/12/2013) - Draw and explain the global carbon cycle. List all major compartments and fluxes and indicate which compartments are sources and which compartments are sinks. (Use appropriate and well defined units). Describe which compartments are the most influential in the cycle and why. Global carbon cycle is how the carbon cycle throughout the globe. The major … Continue reading
  • M2Q3: Biomes (4/12/2013) - Refer to the figure presented below and answer the questions that follow: What does the figure shown above shows? Copy the figure on your answer sheet and label all the missing information. The graph shows the relationship between the climate and the development of biomes What classification criteria are used in the figure? This graph looks at … Continue reading
  • M2Q2: Biodiversity (4/12/2013) - Refer to the graph presented below and answer the questions that follow: Define the concept of species’ richness and species’ evenness. Species richness is a count of number of different species in a given area. The more species found in an area, the richer it is. Species evenness is the relative number of individuals among … Continue reading
  • M2Q1: Ecological Footprint (4/12/2013) - A cattle farm has an area of 10 kilometer square, but an estimated ecological footprint of several times the area of the farm. With this statement in mind, answer the following questions: What is an ecological footprint and how is it calculated? Ecological footprint is a measure of human consumption of natural resources in comparison … Continue reading
  • Protected: The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital (4/9/2013) - This content is password protected. To view it please enter your password below: Password:
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  • 4.2 Context-Free Grammars (3/2/2013) -   The formal Definition of a Context-Free Grammar Terminals are the basic symbols from which strings are formed. The term “token name” is a synonym for “terminal” and frequently we will use the word “token” for terminal when it is clear that we are talking about just the token name. We assume that the terminals … Continue reading
  • Summary of Chapter 4 (3/2/2013) - SYNTAX ANALYSIS Parsers. A parser takes as input tokens from the lexical analyzer and treats the token names as terminal symbols of a context-free grammar. The parser then constructs a parse tree for its input sequence of tokens; the parse tree may be constructed figuratively (by going through the corresponding derivation steps) or literally. Context-Free … Continue reading
  • Summary of Chapter 3 (3/2/2013) - LEXICAL ANALYSIS Tokens. The lexical analyzer scans the source program and produces as output a sequence of tokens, which are normally passed, one at a time to the parser. Some tokens may consist only of a token name while others may also have an associated lexical value that gives information about the particular instance of … Continue reading
  • Summary of Chapter 2 (3/2/2013) - A SIMPLE SYNTAX-DIRECTED TRANSLATION The syntax-directed techniques in this chapter can be used to construct compiler front ends, such as those illustrated in the follow figure:   The starting point for a syntax-directed translator is a grammar for the source language. A grammar describes the hierarchical structure of programs. It is defined in terms of … Continue reading
  • Summary of Chapter 1 (3/2/2013) -  Language Processors. An integrated software development environment includes many different kinds of language processors such as compiler, interpreters, assemblers, linkers, loaders, debuggers, profilers. Compiler Phases. A compiler operates as a sequence of phases, each of which transforms the source program from one intermediate representation to another. Machine and Assembly Languages. Machine languages were the first-generation … Continue reading
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  • Women Take the Page (2/10/2013) - The news item discussed in this paper is: Sergejew, Kyla. 2011. “Women take the page.” Metro, March 30. Print.   The word “equality” does not exist anywhere in the modern world nor will we find its occurrence in the future. Sex inequality is still a main international issue in our current society. The Metro news … Continue reading
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  • Harper’s Apology on Residential School (2/9/2013) - What has been done in the past cannot be undone anymore. In the article, “Prime Minister Harper offers full apology on behalf of Canadians for the Indian Residential Schools system,” (2008) Steven Harper delivers an apology to the First Nations. The Prime Minister apologized for separating aboriginal children from their homes and traditions, providing inadequate … Continue reading
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  • Approaching a state shift in earth's biosphere (1/11/2013) - Localized ecological systems are known to shift abruptly and irreversibly from one state to another when they are forced across critical thresholds. Here we review evidence that the global ecosystem as a whole can react in the same way and is approaching a planetary-scale critical transition as a result of human influence. The plausibility of … Continue reading
  • 1.1 Language Processors (1/9/2013) - A compiler is a program that can read a program in one language – the source language – and translate it into an equivalent program in another language – the target language. If the target program is an executable machine-language program, it can then be called by the user to process inputs and produce outputs. … Continue reading
  • Jan 9 (1/9/2013) - Compilers: any program that translates from one language (formal computer language) to another (machine/emulator)  
  • 1.10 Points to Review (1/6/2013) - A database management system (DBMS) is software that supports management of large collections of data. A DBMS provides efficient data access, data independence, data integrity, security, quick application development, support for concurrent access, and recovery from system failure. (Section 1.1) Storing data in a DBMS versus storing it in operating system files has many advantages. … Continue reading
  • 1.9 People who Deal with Databases (1/6/2013) - Database implementors, who build DBMS software; end users, who wish to store and use data in a DBMS Database application programmers develop packages that facilitate data access for end users, who are usually not computer professionals, suing the host or data languages and software tools that DBMS vendors provide Database administrator is responsible for: Design of the conceptual … Continue reading
  • 1.8 Structure of a DBMS (1/6/2013) - When a user issues a query, the parsed query is presented to a query optimizer, which uses information about how the data is stored to produce an efficient execution plan for evaluating the query. An execution plan is a blueprint for evaluating a query, and is usually represented as a tree of relational operators (with … Continue reading
  • 1.7 Transaction Management (1/6/2013) - A transaction is any one execution of a user program in a DBMS. Concurrent Execution of Transactions locking protocol is a set of rules to be followed by each transaction and enforced by DMS in order to ensure that even though actions of several transactions might be interleaved, the net effect is identical to executing all … Continue reading
  • 1.6 Queries in a DBMS (1/6/2013) - Questions involving the data stored in a DBMS are called queries. Relational calculus is a formal query language based on mathematic logic and queries in this language have an intuitive, precise meaning. Relational algebra is another formal query language, based on a collection of operators for manipulating relation, which is equivalent in power to the calculus. A DBMS … Continue reading
  • 1.5 Describing and Storing Data in a DBMS (1/6/2013) - A data model is a collection of high-level data description constructs that hide many low-level storage details A semantic data model is a more abstract, high-level data model that makes it easier for a user to come up with a good initial description of the data in an enterprise. A database design in terms of a semantic model serves as a … Continue reading
  • 1.4 Advantages of A DBMS (1/6/2013) - Advantages of DBMS: Data independence: Application programs should be as independent as possible from details of data representation and storage. The DBMS can provide an abstract view Efficient data access: A DBMS utilizes a variety of sophisticated techniques to store and retrieve data efficiently. This feature is important for external storage devices. Data integrity and … Continue reading
  • 1.3 File Systems versus A DBMS (1/6/2013) - Drawbacks of storing the data (500GB) in a collection of operating system files: Do not have such large space of main memory! Even if we do, on a 32-bit addressing computer system, we cannot refer directly to more than about 4GB of data! Concurrency issue! Data restoration if the system crashes Operating systems provide on … Continue reading
  • 1.2 A Historical Perspective (1/6/2013) - The first general-purpose DBMS was designed by Charles Bachman in 1960 and was called the Integrated Data Store (the basis for network data model) Information Management System (IMS) DBMS, developed by IBM, formed the basis for hierarchical data model. Edgar Codd proposed relational data model in 1970
  • 1.1 Overview (1/6/2013) - Database Design: How can a user descirbe a real-world enterprise in terms of the data stored in a DBMS? What factors must be considered in deciding how to organize the stored data? Data Analysis: How can a user answer questions about the enterprise by posing queries over the data in the DBMS? Concurrency and Robustness: How does a … Continue reading
  • Chapter 1 Introduction to Database Systems (1/6/2013) - A database is a collection of data, typically describing the activities of one or more related organizations A database management system (DBMS) is software designed to assist in maintaining and utilizing large collections of data.
  • 11/30 (11/30/2012) - Comparative Programming Languages Haskell Prolog Language structures, characteristics   Paradigms: functional object-oriented logic imperative declarative Compiled vs. Interpreted: Compiler Interpreter Typing Static Dynamic duck typing strict typing type inference (haskell) type checking Binding Static Dynamic Memory Management garbage collection manual memory management Concurrency: Parallelism threads sharing memory processes Portability Efficiency (Programmer, Computation) Closures First-class functions … Continue reading
  • 11/28 (11/28/2012) - Context-free grammar S – ab S – A A – a A – b   CAPS: non-terminal (can’t stop till all gone) lowercase: terminal symbols   S => ab, a, b – ab – A – a – A – b   parse.pl > parse([s(3)], S). > parse([a(3)], S). > parse([b(3)], S). > parse([c(3)], S). … Continue reading
  • 11/26 (11/26/2012) - Specific Domain Language Examples: Awk: process text files unix/linux command line tool used in conjunction with others e.g. grep VHDL: VHSIC hardware description language design and simulate hardware/circuits can test virtually before building HTML: mark-up for web pages Maple/Mathematica/Matlab: mathematical computation include visualization e.g. plotting often used via interpreter SQL relational database management several dialects … Continue reading
  • 11/23 (11/23/2012) - Domain Specific Language dedicated to a problem domain, a representation technique or a solution technique   Advantage: more efficient for specific problems very clear code that documents itself the code is written at the level/focus/vocabulary of the domain easier to use, easier to train control of how it’s used ensures safety involve domain experts more … Continue reading
  • 11/21 (11/21/2012) - ——————— bw.pl > restart. > put_on2(c,a). > listing(on/2), list(move/3). > put_on3(c, a, [on(a,b),on(b,c), on(c,table)],S). > start(X), put_on3(c,a,X,S). ——————— Logic Programming Not really a general purpose technique difficult to do the things easier in other programming paradigms Some things are easier: implications backtracking is built in pattern matching -> fining possible solutions Things there are hard: … Continue reading
  • 11/16 (11/16/2012) - -------- sample 1114.pl ---------- > contains(a.leaf(X)). > contains(a, tree(b,  leaf(X), leaf(Y))). > contains (a, X).      a       /        ...  ...        ...       /        a    ...    /     ...  ... ---------------------------------- ---------- bw.pl ----------------- %:- dynamic(on/2). %on (a, b). %on (b, c). %on (c, table). restart :- retractall(on(_,_)),     retractall(move(_,_,_)), … Continue reading
  • 11/14 (11/14/2012) - ------ cutpr.pl --------- p(X,Y) :- a(X), b(Y). p(X,Y) :- a(X), !, b(Y). p(X,Y) :- X = Y, c(X). a(1). a(2). a(3). b(1). b(2). b(3). c(1). c(2). ------------------------ -------- allAns.pl ------------ > bagof(X,q(X,Y,Z), Bag). > setof(Y,q(X,Y,Z), Bag). > findall(Y,q(X,Y,Z), Bag). = bagof(X,X^Z^q(X,Y,Z), Bag). > setof(X,X^Z^q(X,Y,Z), Bag). > finall(X,(qX,Y,Z), X>1), Bag). ------------------------------- bagof(Target, Goal, Bag) setof(Target, Goal, … Continue reading
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  • 10/29 (10/29/2012) - Prolog rules Implication x :- y. Prolog X <- y Logical Notation x is implied by y OR if y, then x. Sentence y. => makes x True x :- y, z. => in prolog, comma is AND x <- ( y ^ z ) Logical Notation x :- y ; z. => semicolon is … Continue reading
  • Lab 05 (10/18/2012) - ROM8x4.dwv library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; use ieee.std_logic_arith.all; entity ROM8x4 is port (addr : in std_logic_vector(2 downto 0); data : out std_logic_vector(3 downto 0)); end ROM8x4; architecture behav of ROM8x4 is type memory is array (0 to 7) of std_logic_vector(3 downto 0); begin process is variable ROM : memory; begin ROM(0) := "0011"; ROM(1) := "1010"; … Continue reading
  • 10/17 (10/17/2012) - Compiler optimization Inline code macro: replace function calls with actual codes move code out of loops loop invariant code notion i.e.: for( int i=0; i< 1000000; i++){ arr[i] = i+x*y } put some variables into registers strictly evaluate some ports reorder instruction for process pipeline Usually have to use an option for compiler Haskell : … Continue reading
  • 10/17 – Latin Verb (PPT) (10/17/2012) - Exam question: what’s the root of ‘audition’? ‘i’ is the phonetic vowel     probation noun -> ppt probate adj. -> ppt prob + a + t *e is ignored because it’s just a rule, not morpheme   probe <-non past participle       preface   fact => face + e + t <- … Continue reading
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  • 10/15 – Latin Verb (10/15/2012) - heuristic: -ion -> Morpheme: past participant legion region opinion French rule Vowel: c -> y spec (Latin) -> spy (French) fac -> satisfact[ion] (Latin) -> satisfy (French) Correction                 => voiced voiceless con + (root) reg or rec? + e + t + ion     => voiceless voiceless (assimilation)           ^ … Continue reading
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  • Haskell – Lazy Evaluation (10/12/2012) - Evaluation Strategies An expression that has the form of a function applied to one or more arguments that can be “reduced”by performing the application is called a reducible expression, or redex for short. As indicated by the use of quotations marks in the preceding sentence, such reductions do not necessarily decrease the size of an … Continue reading
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  • Reading List (8/31/2012) - Week 1-2: Review Appendix C (CD-ROM): Sections C.1 to C.4, C.7, C.8 (to middle of page C-54), C.10, C.11 Problems (pg C-80): C.3, C.5, C.11, B.18, B.19, C.20, C.21 (Use VHDL rather than Verilog), C.35, C.37, C.38, C.39 Ashendon’s “Student’s Guide to VHDL”, Chapter 1 Week 3-6: State machine diagrams, instruction set architectures, and intro … Continue reading
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  • Theory – Assn 3 (8/2/2012) - -> View PDF 1. Define the following terms precisely and briefly: a. Race Condition Two or more processes are reading or writing shared data and the final result depends on the sequence of the events. b. Mutual Exclusion One way to avoid race condition by making sure if one process is in the critical region, … Continue reading
  • Theory – Assn 2 (8/2/2012) - View PDF 1. What happens to the children, when the parent process is killed? What happens to them when the parent terminates? In both cases, they continue running. 2. Does the child process see changes in variables made by the parent process before the fork() statement that creates the child? What about the value changes … Continue reading
  • Attack from Inside the System (8/1/2012) - Trojan Horses A seemingly innocent program contains code to perform an unexpected and undesirable function The function includes: modifying, deleting, or encrypting the user file copying user files to a place where the cracker can retrieve later sending the files to the cracker or a temporary safe hiding place via email/FTP To run a Trojan … Continue reading