1.10 Points to Review

  • A database management system (DBMS) is software that supports management of large collections of data. A DBMS provides efficient data access, data independence, data integrity, security, quick application development, support for concurrent access, and recovery from system failure. (Section 1.1)
  • Storing data in a DBMS versus storing it in operating system files has many advantages. (Section 1.3)
  • Using a DBMS provides the user with data independence, efficient data access, automatic data integrity, and security. (Section 1.4)
  • The structure of the data is described in terms of a data model and the description is called a schema. The relational model is currently the most popular data model. A DBMS distinguishes between external, conceptual, and physical schemas and data independence, which are made possible by these three levels of abstraction, insulate the users of a DBMS from the way the data is structured and stored inside a DBMS. (Section 1.5)
  • query language and a data manipulation language enable high-level access and modification of the data. (Section 1.6)
  • transaction is a logical unit of access to a DBMS. The DBMS ensures that either all or none of a transaction’s changes are applied tot he database. For performance reasons, the DBMS processes multiple transactions concurrently, but ensures that the result is equivalent to running the transactions one after the other in some order. The DBMS maintains a record of all changes to the data in the system log, in order to undo partial transactions an recover from system crashes. Checkpointing is a periodic operation that can reduce the time for recovery from a crash (Section 1.7)
  • DBMS code is organized into several modules: the disk space manager, the buffer manager, a layer that supports the abstractions of files and index structures, a layer that implements relational operators, and a layer that optimizes queries and produces an execution plan in terms of relational operators. (Section 1.8)
  • database administrator (DBA) manages a DBMS for an enterprise. The DBA designs schemas, provide security, restore the system after a failure, and periodically tunes the database to meet changing user needs. Application programmers develop applications that use DBMS functionality to access and manipulate data, and end users involve these applications. (Section 1.9)